Paper published in “Medicine, Science and Law”

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Scientific paper published in “Medicine, Science and the Law” April 2017

Acute forces required for fatal compression asphyxia: A biomechanical model and historical comparisons

Mark W Kroll, G Keith Still, Tom S Neuman, Michael A Graham and Lanny V Griffin

Conclusions

A biomechanical ribcage model predicts that an adult male requires at least 2550 +/- 250 N (260 +/- 26 kg) of static chest mass to cause flail chest. This is consistent with the records of judicial pressing. The model predicts that an adult male requires 4050 +/- 320 N of dynamic force to cause flail chest.

Click here for the pressure research page

Crowd Analysis for the New York Times

We were monitoring the crowd build up from 0600 (Washington DC time) from 7 different live TV feeds. These are the images of the crowds 45 minutes before the Oath of Office. From the front, the crowd density looks similar, but note the white areas near the back of the 2017 crowds.

From the Podium – the low angle would give the illusion of a packed area stretching far into the distance. This is a common crowd illusion and often leads to overestimating the crowd size. You need to see ALL angles to understand the actual attendance.

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From a lower angle, we can see the spaces more clearly.

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From the rear view we can see that the front 1/3rd is full (ticketed/seated areas) but the back 2/3rds are empty.

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When we use a plan image, mapping the areas, we see the relative crowd size on the Mall.

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Using both the visual analysis and a plan/area analysis we have a 1/3rd of the space occupied in the Trump (2017) inauguration compared to the Obama (2009) inauguration.

This is not a political statement, just a crowd estimation. Our initial, real-time estimate of 1/3rd was later confirmed with the area estimate.

From the New York Times (based on our analysis)

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We can produce a comparative analysis of area very quickly and therefore a comparative crowd size (given crowd density for similar types of events). So the 20th Jan 2017 had approx. 1/3rd the crowd occupancy of the 2009 event. The 21st Jan had approximately 3x the crowd of the 20th Jan event. When high-resolution images become available, we will update our analysis.

Analysis by Keith Still and Marcel Altenburg – Manchester Metropolitan University.

 

 

 

 

APEL Course – Crowd Risk Analysis

An APEL (Accredited Prior Experiential Learning) route from industry experience to the MSc in Crowd Safety and Risk Analysis at Manchester Metropolitan University is available via the “Introduction to Crowd Safety and Risk Analysis” short course run around the world.

The course outline is on this link

http://www.gkstill.com/Courses/ShortCourse.html

A short video, outlining the course content, is available on this link

http://www.gkstill.com/Courses/Outline.html

email me for further information.

GKStill@me.com

Copyright

Several people are copying my course material, content and structure (and passing it off as their own).

Copyright – Overview

Copyright protects your work and stops others from using it without your permission.

You get copyright protection automatically – you don’t have to apply or pay a fee. There isn’t a register of copyright works in the UK.

You automatically get copyright protection when you create:

  • original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic work, including illustration and photography
  • original non-literary written work, eg software, web content and databases
  • sound and music recordings
  • film and television recordings
  • broadcasts
  • the layout of published editions of written, dramatic and musical works

You can mark your work with the copyright symbol (©), your name and the year of creation. Whether you mark the work or not doesn’t affect the level of protection you have.

How copyright protects your work

Copyright prevents people from:

  • copying your work
  • distributing copies of it, whether free of charge or for sale 
  • renting or lending copies of your work
  • performing, showing or playing your work in public
  • making an adaptation of your work
  • putting it on the internet

In most countries copyright lasts a minimum of life plus 50 years for most types of written, dramatic and artistic works, and at least 25 years for photographs. It can be different for other types of work.

Melbourne Cricket Ground

Just delivered the Introduction to Crowd Safety and Risk Analysis course at the Melborune Cricket ground. Excellent case studies and student applications. Very impressed at the quality of the presenations and attention to detail.

Next week , executive briefing at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, meeting with Western Sydney University, keynote talk at ASIAL conference, then a 1/2 day executive briefing on our education programmes we deliver around the world.

http://www.gkstill.com/Courses/ShortCourse.html

For further infromation – contact me at K.Still@mmu.ac.uk

Australia – Itinerary

Heading to Australia tomorrow – packed lecture programme over the next few weeks

11th Melbourne University Lecture/discussions

13th – 15th MCG course “Introduction to Crowd Science”

18th MCG Executive seminar

19th Western Sydney University – lecture and discussions

20th ASIAL Conference Keynote Lecture and Discussion Panel 

 

 

22nd ASIAL 1/2 day short course – Executive Briefing  

Drop me a line if you are in Melbourne and want to meet up.