Scientific paper published in “Medicine, Science and the Law” April 2017
Acute forces required for fatal compression asphyxia: A biomechanical model and historical comparisons
Mark W Kroll, G Keith Still, Tom S Neuman, Michael A Graham and Lanny V Griffin
A biomechanical ribcage model predicts that an adult male requires at least 2550 +/- 250 N (260 +/- 26 kg) of static chest mass to cause flail chest. This is consistent with the records of judicial pressing. The model predicts that an adult male requires 4050 +/- 320 N of dynamic force to cause flail chest.
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